Understanding and Challenging Stigma toward Men who have Sex with Men: Toolkit for Action

Published: June 4, 2013

Table of Contents

Acronyms …………………………………………………………………………………………01
Why a Toolkit on Stigma toward Men who Have Sex with Men?……………………..02
What is the Toolkit?…………………………………………………………………………….04
How to Use the Toolkit…………………………………………………………………………06
Sample Programs for Different Types of Workshops……………………………………..08
The Exercises or Session Plans……………………………………………………………….10
Tips for Facilitating Participatory Workshops………………………………………………12
Chapter A: Naming Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men…………………………………..26
A1. Naming Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men through Pictures……………………………………28
A2. What the Community Says, Fears and Does to
Men who Have Sex with Men…………………………………………………………36
A3. Naming Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men through Testimonies ……………………………..42
A4. Naming Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men in Different Places…………………………………48
A5. Finding Solutions to Challenge Stigma toward
Men who Have Sex with Men…………………………………………………………56
A6. Naming Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men through Case Studies…………………………….62
A7. Personal Experience of Being Stigmatized………………………………………….68
A8. What is the Meaning of Stigma? ……………………………………………………76
A9. The Blame Game ………………………………………………………………………80
A10. When the Family Discovers that their Son is a
Man who Has Sex with Men…………………………………………………………..88
A11. Forms, Effects, and Causes of Stigma toward
Men who Have Sex with Men (Problem Tree)……………………………………..98
A12. HowStigma toward Men who Have Sex with Men
Fuels the HIV Epidemic…………………………………………………………………102
A13. Stigma and Discrimination toward
Men who Have Sex with Men in the Clinic…………………………………………106
Chapter B: Understanding What it Means to Be a
Man who Has Sex with Men ……………………………………116
B1. Breaking the Sex Taboo………………………………………………………………..118
B2. What Do We Know about Men who Have Sex with Men? …………………….126
B3. What is Sex? What is Gender?……………………………………………………….132
B4. Act Like a Real Man…………………………………………………………………….136
B5. Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation…………….142
B6. Misconceptions about Men who Have Sex with Men……………………………154
B7. Value Clarification………………………………………………………………………160
Annex for Chapter B: What Do You Know About Men Who Have Sex with Men?
(True / False Questionaire)………………………………………..166
Chapter C: Coping with Stigma and Discrimination……174
C1. Personal Experiences of Stigma………………………………………………………176
C2. Strategies for Coping with Stigma……………………………………………………182
C3. How to Challenge Stigma in an Assertive Way……………………………………186
C4. Disclosure: How to Disclose to the Family…………………………………………192
C5. Coping with Stress………………………………………………………………………200
C6. Relations between Men who Have Sex with Men
Long Hair and Short Hair………………………………………………………………204
Chapter D: Men who Have Sex with Men and HIV …….208
D1. Assessing Knowledge about HIV and
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)………………………………………………..210
D2. HIV Transmission and Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM)……………………214
D3. HIV RiskFactors in Same Sex Relationships………………………………………..224
Chapter E: Moving to Action…………………………………….230
E1. Start with a Vision – A World without Stigma………………………………………236
E2. Men who Have Sex with Men and Human Rights………………………………..242
E3. Challenge What People Say about Men who Have Sex with Men……………250
E4. Action – Writing a Code of Conduct for a
“Stigma and Discrimination Free Health Facility”………………………………..256
Annex A: Information Sheets……………………………………………. 266
1. Glossary of Terms……………………………………………………………………….268
2. Men who Have Sex with Men – Frequently Asked Questions………………….272
3. Becoming Open: Stages in the Process…………………………………………….280
4. What Do I Do If Someone Wants toDisclose His Sexual Orientation to Me?……………………………………………282
5. Stigma and Discrimination toward Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM)……284
6. Human Rights…………………………………………………………………………….288
7. Hate Violence…………………………………………………………………………….292
8. Sexually Transmitted Infections……………………………………………………….294
9. HIV Transmission…………………………………………………………………………298
10. HIV and AIDS: Frequently Asked Questions……………………………………….302
11. Code of Conduct for Health Workers……………………………………………….304
12. Code of Conduct for the Police ……………………………………………………..306
Annex B: Stigma Pictures………………………………………………….. 308

Full text of article available at link below –

Leave a Reply