Despite extensive distribution of free condoms and lubricants to prevent HIV transmission among men having sex with men (MSM) in Nepal, the prevalence of HIV and risky sexual behaviors remain high. The influence of individual-level, social-capital, and social-structural factors on HIV risk has been insufficiently explored in MSM. The authors assessed association of these factors with HIV risk among 150 MSM enrolled using snowball sampling in the Kathmandu Valley. HIV risk was calculated on the basis of number and type of sexual partners and condom use during anal sex. Multivariate analysis showed a high risk of HIV infection was significantly associated with being involved in sex work, having no knowledge of male sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms, and having a history of STI symptoms. HIV prevention could be made more effective by targeting MSM who are involved in sex work and by improving their knowledge of male STI symptoms and early diagnosis and treatment.
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