Report exploring the link between MSM, homophobia and HIV/AIDS in countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia

Published: January 1, 2010

Executive Summary

1. Homophobia in South-eastern Europe – Prevalence, Consequences, and Prevention 9
1.1. Introduction 9
1.2. Meaning and Impact of Homophobia 9
1.3. A Snapshot of Homophobia in the Region 10
1.4. Local Responses to Homophobia 11
1.5. Recommendations for Homophobia Prevention 13
1.5.1.Young People and Schools 13
1.5.2. Law Enforcement and Homophobia 13
1.5.3. Social Marketing and the Media 14
1.5.4. Internalized Homophobia 14
1.6. Conclusion 15

2. MSM- men having sex with men 17
2.1. Introduction 17
2.2. The Term 18
2.3. “MSM” in the Region, Introduction 18
2.4. Silent men 19
2.5. What’s Sex Got to Do with It? 20
2.6. Continued: MSM in the Region 20
2.7. Instead of Conclusion 21

3. Legal Status of Sexual and Gender Minorities in South-eastern Europe 23
3.1. Introduction 23
3.2. Human Rights Standards 23
3.2.1. Human rights definition 23
3.2.2. Violations of human rights 23
3.2.3. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 24
3.2.4. First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR 26
3.2.5. Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR 26
3.2.7. Protocol 12 to the ECHR 26
3.2.8. The European Charter on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 27
3.2.9. The European documents relevant for sexual and gender minorities 27
3.2.10. The European Parliament Resolution A3-0028/94 27
3.2.11. The European Parliament Resolution A5-0050/00 27
3.2.12. The Council Directive 2000/78/EC 27
3.2.13. The European Parliament Resolution on Homophobia in Europe 28
3.2.14. The Council of Europe Recommendation CM/Rec (2010) 28
3.3. Right to life, safety and protection from violence 28
3.3.1. Legal background in the region 28
3.3.2. Violence against sexual and gender minorities 29
3.3.3. Availability of effective remedies 30
3.3.4. Forced psychiatric treatment 31
3.3.5. Conclusions and recommendations 32
3.4. Right to expression and public assembly 33
3.4.1. Practice of the European Court on Human Rights 33
3.4.2. Zagreb Pride 34
3.4.3. Belgrade Pride 34
3.4.4. Queer festival Sarajevo 35
4.4.5. Conclusions and recommendations 35
3.5. Right to be protected from discrimination 36
3.5.2. Practice of the European Court on Human Rights 36
3.5.3. National anti-discrimination legislations 36
3.5.4. Conclusions and recommendations 39
3.6. Right to family life 40
3.6.1. European context 40
3.6.2. Situation in the region 41
3.6.3. Conclusions and recommendations 42
3.7. Summary of recommendations 42
RIGHT TO LIFE, SAFETY AND PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE 42
RIGHT TO EXPRESSION AND PUBLIC ASSEMBLY 43
RIGHT TO BE PROTECTED FROM DISCRIMINATION 43
RIGHT TO FAMILY LIFE 44

4. Health of MSM 45
4.1. Introduction 45
4.2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 46
4.3. Croatia 49
4.4. Montenegro 52
4.5. Serbia 53
4.6. Instead of conclusion 56
4.7. References 57

5. Academic education on LGBT population in three helping professions in countries of South-eastern Europe 59
5.1. Summary 59
5.2. Introduction 59
5.3. On data collection 61
5.4. Overview of the data collected and discussion by country 62
5.4.1. Bosnia and Herzegovina 62
5.4.2. CROATIA 64
5.4.3. MONTENEGRO 69
5.4.4. SERBIA 70
5.5. Conclusion and recommendations 73
5.6. List of participants 74
5.7. References 75

6. Activism and non-governmental response 79
6.1. Introduction 79
6.2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 80
6.3. Croatia 81
6.4. Montenegro 83
6.5. Serbia 84

7. Prevention tips- manual on prevention activities 87
7.1. Prevention 87
7.1.1. Safer sex 87
7.1.2. Condoms and lubricants 88
7.2. Risk and vulnerability assessment 88
7.2.1. More than sex 88
7.2.2. Work with organizations in society (NGOs) 89
7.2.3. Work with “gatekeepers” 89
7.2.4. Work with health service providers 89
7.2.5. Principles obstructing HIV prevention 90
7.3. Strategies of HIV/STD prevention for MSM and with MSM 91
7.3.1. Health-promotion strategies focused on individuals 91
7.3.2. Under the open skies 91
7.3.3. On a secret mission 92
7.3.4. Materials 92
7.3.5. Groups 93
7.3.6. Workshops 93
7.3.7. Strategies for gradual increase, targeting and improvement of delivery of services and products 94
7.3.8. Condoms 94
7.3.9. Lubricants 95
7.3.10. Counselling 95
7.3.11. Ethical issues and confidentiality 96
7.3.12. Other services 96
7.4 Strategies for mobilizing the community 97
7.4.1. Celebration time 97
7.4.2. Safe house 97
7.4.3. On-line 98
7.4.4. In prison 98
7.5.1. Various settings 99
7.5.2. Visibility and representation 99
7.5.3. Link with the police 100
7.5.4. Social advocacy 100
7.5.5. Political advocacy 101
7.6.6. Religion 101

Acronyms 103

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