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Published: July 12, 2011

Abstinence
 
On a population level, delaying the onset of sexual activity, or at least full intercourse, could be an effective HIV prevention measure amongst some groups.

Being faithful
 
This section explores concurrent partnerships and the impact of partner reduction on HIV prevention.

Condoms and lubricants
 
Consistently used condoms provide significant protection against HIV, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), significantly better than any other prevention method.

Female condoms
 
Introduced in 1993, the female condom is still the only female-controlled barrier method that has been proven to reduce sexually transmitted infections.

Circumcision
 
There is strong biological and epidemiological evidence that circumcised men are less vulnerable to HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse than uncircumcised men.

Serosorting, sexual harm reduction and disclosure
 
This section examines research into other strategies people use to reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

Post-exposure prophylaxis
 
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been in use, in healthcare settings, since 1988. Providing PEP after sexual exposure is more controversial.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis
 
Pre-exposure prophylaxis is an experimental HIV-prevention strategy that would use antiretrovirals (ARVs) to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection.

HIV treatment as prevention
 
In recent years there has been a greater emphasis on the role of HIV treatment as a method of preventing new infections.

Treating sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV
 
One strand of investigation in the biomedical prevention of HIV is to see whether we can reduce HIV incidence by treating other sexually transmitted infections

Microbicides
 
Microbicides are any substances which protect people against infection by microbes, such as viruses or bacteria, on contact with those microbes.

Behaviour change
 
A practical introduction to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of non-biomedical HIV prevention methods.

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