Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: An agenda for action

Published: July 1, 2010

Contents

Foreword vi
Acknowledgements viii
Acronyms 1
Executive summary 2
1 Introduction 8
1.1 Objectives and method 8
1.2 Approach 9
1.3 International legal and policy context 9
1.4 National policy contexts 11
1.5 The role of national and regional human rights institutions 12
1.6 Social and religious contexts 13
1.7 Epidemiological and demographic contexts 16
1.8 The relationship between enabling legal environments and reduction of HIV 19
2 South Asia 22
2.1 Overview 22
2.2 Laws affecting HIV responses among MSM and transgender people 23
2.2.1Criminal laws and police practices 23
2.2.2 Laws relating to discrimination 35
2.2.3 Legal status of transgender people 39
2.3 Actions taken to improve the legal environment 42
2.3.1 Community 42
2.3.2 Government 49
2.3.3 Donors and multilateral agencies 51
2.4 Conclusions 52
3 East Asia 54
3.1 Overview 54
3.2 Laws affecting HIV responses among MSM and transgender people 54
3.2.1Criminal laws and police practices 54
3.2.2 Laws relating to discrimination 58
3.2.3 Legal status of transgender people 59
3.2.4 Other laws 61
3.3 Actions taken to improve the legal environment 64
3.3.1 Community 64
3.3.2 Government 64
3.3.3 Donors and multilateral agencies 64
3.4 Conclusions 65
4 South East Asia 66
4.1 Overview 66
4.2 Laws affecting HIV responses among MSM and transgender people 66
4.2.1 Criminal laws and police practices 66
4.2.2 Laws relating to discrimination 75
4.2.3 Legal status of transgender people 77
4.2.4 Other laws 79
4.3 Actions taken to improve the legal environment 82
4.3.1 Community 82
4.3.2 Government 85
4.3.3 Donors and multilateral organizations 87
4.4 Conclusions 88
5 Pacific 90
5.1 Overview 90
5.2 Laws affecting HIV responses among MSM and transgender people 91
5.2.1 Criminal laws and police practices 91
5.2.2 Laws relating to discrimination 96
5.2.3 Legal status of transgender people 96
5.2.4 Other laws 97
5.3 Actions taken to improve the legal environment 98
5.3.1 Community 98
5.3.2 Government 100
5.3.3 Donors and multilateral agencies 104
5.4 Conclusions 105
6 Asia Pacific regional responses 106
7 Findings and conclusions 109
8 Recommendations for an agenda for action 114
Annex I: Glossary of terms 122
Annex II: Consultation participants 125
Annex III: International legal and policy developments 127
Annex IV: Selected references 132

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