Human Rights Protections for Sexual Minorities in Insular Southeast Asia: Issues and Implications for Effective HIV Prevention

Published: August 19, 2011

Contents
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………iv
Acronyms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….v
Terminology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..vii
Executive summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

Part 1 – Introduction: A need for respect for human rights in HIV prevention …………………..6
1.1 Epidemiological trends of HIV in Asia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.2 Punitive laws on same-sex sexual activity ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. .8
1.3 Punitive laws on same-sex sexual activity impede HIV prevention ……………………………………………………. ……..9

Part 2 – Domestic laws and practices in insular Southeast Asia ……………………………………………….12
2.1 Brunei Darussalam ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.2 Indonesia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
2.3 Malaysia ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………23
2.4 Philippines ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30
2.5 Singapore………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
2.6 Timor-Leste …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Part 3 – International law and the rights of sexual minorities………………………………………………………………………………………………….48
3.1 International human rights instruments …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49
3.2 International jurisprudence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
3.3 International organizations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57
3.4 The Yogyakarta Principles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………62

Part 4 – Insular Southeast Asia’s international obligations ……………………………………………………….. 66
4.1 Brunei Darussalam ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67
4.2 Indonesia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
4.3 Malaysia ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………69
4.4 Philippines ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….70
4.5 Singapore………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
4.6 Timor-Leste …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72
Part 5 – Conclusions and recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………….74

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