Gay Men and HIV: An Urgent Priority

Published: July 2, 2010

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary 1
     
  • The HIV Epidemic Among Gay and Bisexual Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men: National Data 3
    • HIV Incidence 3
    • HIV Prevalence 4
    • Trends Over Recent Years and Since the Start of the Epidemic 4
    • Related Statistics 5
  • Challenges Presented by the Data 6
    • Race/Ethnicity 6
    • Age 6
  • Why Does HIV Disproportionately Affect Gay Men? 8
    • Sexual Identity and Behavior 8
      • Sexual Identity and Behavior among Black MSM 8
      • Sexual Identity and Behavior among Latino MSM 9
      • Sexual Identity and Behavior among Male-to-Female Transgender Persons 11
      • Sexual Identity and Behavior among Youth and Aging Populations 12
      • Sexual Identity and Behavior among Foreign-Born MSM 13
    • Risk Factors 13
      • Context: Most Gay Men Have Safer Sex 13
      • Social and Economic Factors 15
      • Substance Use and Abuse and HIV Risk 15
      • The Demographics of Substance Abuse and HIV Risk 16
      • Substance Use Prevention among Gay Men 17
      • Other Sexual Health Issues 18
        • Syphilis 18
        • MRSA 18
        • Anal Cancer 19
    • Resiliency Factors 20
      • Community Connectedness 20
      • Family Acceptance 21
      • School Acceptance: Combating Anti-LGBT Harassment and Violence 22
        • State and Local Policies 23
        • Staff Development and Training 24
        • Safe Schools Programs 24
        • Gay-Straight Alliances 24
  • HIV Prevention 27
    • History of CDC Policy 27
      • CDC Policies and Programs in the 1980s 27
      • CDC Policies and Programs in the 1990s 27
      • CDC Policies and Programs, 2000–2009 28
    • Current CDC HIV Prevention Programs 29
      • HIV Testing 29
      • STI Testing and Treatment 29
      • Individual- and Group-Level Interventions 31
      • Community-Level and Structural Interventions 31
    • What CDC Could Do Differently to Better Prevent HIV Infections 32
      • Social Marketing 32
      • Community Building 32
      • Internet Interventions 32
      • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) 33
      • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) 34
      • Rectal Microbicides 35
      • Serosorting, Strategic Positioning, and Seroadaptation 35
      • Commercial Sex Venues 37
      • Effective Prevention and CSVs: New York City 38
      • Comprehensive Sex Education in U.S. Schools 38
    • What We Need to Do Differently 41
      • Fight Homophobia and Anti-Gay Bias as a Public Health Threat 41
      • Promote Family Acceptance of Gay Youth 42
      • Prevent HIV in Prison While Simultaneously Preventing Sexual Abuse and Rape 42
      • Make Mental Health and Substance Use Services More Accessible 43
      • Implement a National AIDS Strategy 44
  • An Ethical Foundation for HIV Prevention 46
    • An Expanded HIV-Prevention Ethic 46
  • Recommendations to the Obama Administration and the 111th Congress 48
  • Recommendations to Decrease HIV Infection among Gay Men 49
    • HIV Testing 49
    • HIV Prevention and Programming 49
    • HIV Prevention for Youth 50
    • Social and Economic 50
    • 2009 Gay Men’s Health Agenda 50

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